Research on Printed Literature

Advances in human cognition research have pointed the way to potential design opportunities for Consumer Medication Information that could have a major impact on how well the information is understood. The Pharmaceutical Printed Literature Association is helping fund research with that in mind.

Collation of the results has not completed navigating the rigorous academic review process, including peer review. When published, this website will highlight the results.

Just as the PPLA values scientific information about FDA–approved drugs, we also value scientific information and research about the quality of information and its comprehension. Both the 2001 and 2008 studies by the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy and the University of Florida College of Pharmacy, referred to elsewhere in this site are outstanding examples of the importance of a rigorous, disciplined approach.

Pharmacy Practice: A Report on Pharmacists’ Use of Printed Package Inserts

January 2015

NERA Economic Consulting designed and conducted research to address how and what extent pharmacists use the printed package inserts, how printed package inserts help to facilitate the appropriate dispensing of medication, and pharmacists’ perceptions of potential exclusive e-labeling schemes.

Patient Medication Information: Printed and/or Electronic?

January 2014

Dr. Ruth Day of Duke University examined the cognitive benefits and public preferences of printed medication literature versus e-labeling. She concluded that 95% of both older patients and young t-ch savvy adults wanted to retain printed versions of their medication information over its electronic counterpart.

GAO Study on “Electronic Drug Labeling”

July 2013

The Government Accountability Office (GAO), as Congress requested, published a report on Electronic Drug Labeling. This report focuses on three types of prescription drug labeling: the prescribing information intended for health care practitioners, Medication Guides intended to inform patients about drugs FDA has determined pose a serious and significant public health concern, and patient package inserts (PPI).

Evaluation of Consumer Medication Information Dispensed in Retail Pharmacies


The FDA commissioned another study examining the quality of CMI in the U.S. by the University of Florida College of Pharmacy.

Consumer medication information in the United States, Europe, and Australia: a comparative evaluation


An international comparative study on consumer medication information and the effectiveness.

Expert and Consumer Evaluation of Patient Medication Leaflets Provided in U.S. Pharmacies


As required by the PL 104-180, the FDA commissioned a study conducted by the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy to examine quality goals of medication leaflets.

To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System


The Institute of Medicine a part of the National Academies of Science conducted a study on medical errors and their consequences.